Sunday, May 1, 2016

جولة ملك الأردن الخليجية: "أمن واستخبارات" مقابل طوق اقتصادي



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Syria: Disregard for Civilian Life in Hospital Attacks

UN Security Council Should Enforce Resolution 2254


(New York) – Deadly airstrikes on a hospital and a clinic in Aleppo show a disregard for civilian life and may amount to war crimes. 
A view shows the damage at al-Quds hospital after it was hit by airstrikes, in a rebel-held area of Syria's Aleppo.
A view shows the damage at al-Quds hospital after it was hit by airstrikes, in a rebel-held area of Syria's Aleppo.
An airstrike on April 27, 2016, that hit al-Quds Hospital and surrounding areas, killed 58 civilians, including medical staff and many patients, according to the Syrian Civil Defense, an opposition search-and-rescue volunteer group. On April 29, another airstrike hit a clinic in the opposition-held al-Marja neighborhood, injuring 10 people, according to the Syrian Civil Defense. First responders reached by Human Rights Watch said they knew of no military objective close to the hospital or the clinic.
“As the cease-fire frays, Syrian civilians are again paying the price in blood,” said Philippe Bolopion, deputy director for global advocacy. “The UN Security Council should act immediately over the attack on al-Quds Hospital and demand an inquiry to determine who is responsible.”
The Russian government denied responsibility for the attack on al-Quds Hospital. The US State Department blamed the Syrian government.
According to Bibars Mish’al, a first responder with the Aleppo branch of the Syrian Civil Defense, airstrikes struck al-Quds Hospital, which is supported by the humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), at 10 p.m. on April 27. There were no military targets in or around the medical facility at that time, Mish’al said.
“It was such a painful sight,” Mish’al told Human Rights Watch from inside Aleppo city. “We worked for 30 hours to get one small child out of the rubble. And people are still working to extricate others, even as the planes keep flying above our heads and firing.”
Video of the carnage at the Aleppo strikes shot by opposition journalists showed a man carrying a dead child with severe head wounds. The video showed people digging others out from under rubble and fires burning in nearby buildings. According to a statement by MSF and the International Committee of the Red Cross, al-Quds Hospital had eight beds in their pediatrics unit and was the main center for referrals for sick children in opposition-held Aleppo.
The United Nations Security Council should immediately act in response to these attacks on medical facilities. Under international humanitarian law, medical facilities are afforded a special protection, while also retaining the general protections applied to civilians and civilian structures. The council should request that the UN secretary-general conduct an independent inquiry into the events within two weeks, identify who conducted the strikes, and evaluate the impact the attacks will have on access to health care in the area.
Security Council Resolution 2254, adopted on December 18, 2015, called on all parties to the conflict in Syria to “immediately cease any attacks against civilians and civilian objects as such, including attacks against medical facilities and personnel, and any indiscriminate use of weapons, including through shelling and aerial bombardment.”
Armed groups in opposition areas were also responsible for the death of civilians in government-held Aleppo city as they shelled civilian neighborhoods. According to the Syrian state news agency SANA, 16 civilian worshippers were killed and 41 injured in armed group shelling on a mosque on April 29, during Friday prayers in Aleppo city.
The Syria peace talks in Geneva have all but collapsed. The opposition’s High Negotiations Committee suspended its participation on April 18, partly in protest over the renewed violence in Syria. Casualties had decreased since the cessation of hostilities was announced on February 26, but escalated again in the past two weeks. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported on April 30 a total of 244 civilians killed in Aleppo over eight days of airstrikes and shelling – 140 of whom died because of airstrikes in opposition-held Aleppo – including 19 children and 14 women. The group also said that 96 civilians, including 21 children and 13 women, were killed in government-held Aleppo from shelling by armed groups.
The UN Security Council should impose an arms embargo that would suspend all military sales and assistance, including technical training and services, to all forces credibly implicated in serious violations in Syria, Human Rights Watch said. The council should also impose sanctions against officials from all sides who are shown to be implicated in the most serious abuses, and commit to a credible process to ensure criminal accountability for grave abuses by all sides. Human Rights Watch has repeatedly called on the Security Council to give the International Criminal Court a mandate in Syria.
Deliberate or reckless attacks against civilians and civilian structures committed with criminal intent are war crimes. The laws of war require that the parties to a conflict take constant care during military operations to spare the civilian population and to “take all feasible precautions” to avoid or minimize the incidental loss of civilian life and damage to civilian objects. Like other civilian structures, hospitals may not be targeted. Furthermore, they remain protected unless they are “used to commit hostile acts” that are outside their humanitarian function. Even then, they are only subject to attack after a warning has been given setting a reasonable time limit, and after such a warning has gone unheeded.

The Observer view on Barack Obama’s role in bringing peace to Syria

The American president must use all means possible to get Vladimir Putin on board

Observer editorial


A man carries injured girl after an air-strike on Aleppo on Thursday.
 A man carries injured girl after an air-strike on Aleppo on Thursday. Photograph: Beha el Halebi/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Just when it seemed it could not get any worse, it did. Syria’s partial “cessation of hostilities”, on which shaky hopes of peace rest, rapidly unravelled last week. Amid a suddenly mounting toll of dead and injured came reports of renewed atrocities. In Aleppo, hospital was bombed, killing up to 27 people, including doctors and children. The attack by Bashar al-Assad’s air force fitted an established, pre-ceasefire pattern of deliberately targeting civilians in hospitals, schools and markets. What has changed now is that this murderous regime, buoyed by Russian support and reinvigorated by the ceasefire, barely bothers to deny it.
Aleppo’s plight captured attention, not least because senior UN officials used it to dramatise their pleas to the US and others to rescue the peace talks in Switzerland, described as all but dead. “The violence is soaring back to the levels prior to the cessation of hostilities. There are deeply disturbing reports of military build-ups indicating a lethal escalation,” said Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, the UN’s human rights chief. “The Geneva talks were the only game in town. If they are abandoned, I dread to think how much more horror we will see in Syria.”
Less fully reported was the plight of starving Syrians marooned and besieged elsewhere in the country. “Deliberately deprived of food and medicine, many face the most appalling conditions. We must all be ashamed that this is happening on our watch,” said Stephen O’Brien, head of UN relief operations, pointing to the dire situation in Homs, Idlib, Latakia and rural Damascus. Thanks partly to the ceasefire, 3.7 million people received food aid in March, he said. Cross-border convoys so far this year reached nearly twice as many people as in the same period in 2015.
This limited progress is now at risk from renewed fighting, with Assad’s forces, in particular, again obstructing aid convoys. “Last week, on the convoy to Rastan, the Syrian authorities removed medicines from supplies and scissors and anaesthetic medicines from midwifery kits. This inhumane practice directly leads to unnecessary suffering and loss of life,” O’Brien reported. Denial of medical supplies in time of war is a gross breach of humanitarian law, yet it is happening again. There can be no excuse. It is wholly monstrous. An accounting must be made. And, one day, the perpetrators will pay for their crimes.
Or so we say. Sadly, the unpalatable reality is that such vows and declarations, whether issued by UN officials, relief agencies, government ministers, MPs or newspaper editorials, will be contemptuously ignored, as they have been for the past five years, until the principal external actors in this tragedy stop playing power games and start taking responsibility. Foremost among them are Russia and Iran, Assad’s main backers. In March, Vladimir Putin declared his forces were withdrawing. This now seems to have been a ruse chiefly designed to reassure public opinion at home and defuse international criticism of indiscriminate Russian bombing. As concern over Aleppo grew, Moscow said it would support a temporary, limited “regime of calm”.
It would be good, but ingenuous, to believe Putin is sincere. There is no evidence his broader objectives in Syria – maintaining Russia’s bases, projecting Moscow’s influence across the Middle East, keeping the Americans out – have changed. His bombers may be flying fewer missions, but they continue to shield Assad.
Likewise, Iran’s leadership appears to view Syria, expediently, as just another front in its region-wide power contest with Saudi Arabia and the Sunni Gulf monarchies. And it is no use looking to the Arab states to get peace back on track. Their collective record is pitiful.
So once again, as the UN’s Syria envoy, Staffan de Mistura, acknowledged last week, it falls to the US to do something – anything – with a leader-less Europe playing its usual support role. At last week’s Hanover summit, Obama showed no interest in spending political capital on an insoluble problem his intellectual analysis tells him must be left to play itself out. But in terms of practical politics and human decency, Obama must act. He may not be able to solve Syria. Yet only he can get Putin on board. Only he can knock heads together, get the parties back to Geneva, cement a ceasefire in place, reduce the carnage and maybe cut a deal with Moscow on Assad’s future. Given his past mistakes, and for the sake of Syria’s devastated people, he has an obligation at least to try.

‘We’ve had massacres all week’: Aleppo on fire again as Assad consigns ceasefire to history

Even those familiar with the worst of the Syrian conflict are shaken by the scale of the latest assault, as bombs and guns seek out civilian targets

The Guardian


Emergency workers after an airstrike hit a civilian neighbourhood in eastern Aleppo, wounding three.
 Emergency workers after an airstrike hit a civilian neighbourhood in eastern Aleppo, wounding three. Photograph: Khaled-Al-Essa
The president of Aleppo city council, Brita Haji Hasan, had a picture on his phone. It showed the corpse of Hasan Amory, 29, a father of two and council engineer who that morning had been killed by a Syrian air force missile as he headed into work in the opposition stronghold.
“We have had massacres on a daily basis for six or seven days,” Haji Hasan told the Observer, during an interview in the Turkish city of Gaziantep, 30 miles from the Syrian border.
They are destroying schools and civilian targets using barrel bombs, airstrikes and machine guns. Another colleague of mine was killed yesterday while I spoke to him on Skype.”
As the most senior civic leader in Aleppo, Haji Hasan has been trying to make life livable in the most impossible and dangerous of circumstances. “It is a terrible situation,” he said. “But we are trying to live.”
Brita Haji Hasan, head of Aleppo’s council, in the Turkish town of Gaziantep the day before he was held, apparently by Kurdish secret police, as he tried to return to the city.
 Brita Haji Hasan, head of Aleppo’s council, in the Turkish town of Gaziantep the day before he was held, apparently by Kurdish secret police, as he tried to return to the city. Photograph: Andy Hall for the Observer
Syria’s largest city is once again under bombardment: its residents are, once again, exposed to pitiless, wanton attack as the world looks on. The ferocity and cruelty of the bombing of Aleppo by Bashar al-Assad’s air force has shocked even those familiar with the worst of this conflict.
Since breaking its ceasefire eight days ago, the regime has launched more than 260 airstrikes, 110 artillery strikes and 18 missiles, and has dropped 68 bombs, according to the civil defence organisation in opposition-controlled Syriaknown as the White Helmets.
Aleppo has been excluded from a partial ceasefire agreed elsewhere in the country late on Friday evening. On Saturday the regime’s airstrikes began at around 10am with a volley of seven missiles hitting civilian areas in the space of half an hour, killing at least six people and injuring 20. That came after attacks on Friday left at least eight people dead and destroyed a medical facility and a water pump, threatening the city’s vital supplies, according to reports.
On Thursday, bombs destroyed a hospital backed by Médecins Sans Frontières and the International Committee of the Red Cross, killing the city’s last remaining paediatrician, along with 26 other people, including three children.
Staffan de Mistura, the UN envoy for Syria, declared the cessation of hostilities agreement brokered by the US and Russia as “barely alive”as a result.
The UK’s special representative for Syria, Gareth Bayley, tweeted: “#Russia needs to get control over the #Assad regime’s attacks on civilians.”
US secretary of state John Kerry meanwhile urged a return to the nationwide ceasefire in Syria and said attacks on Aleppo must stop immediately.
“The secretary expressed his deep concern about the deteriorating situation in Aleppo, where the ... regime (of President Bashar al-Assad) continues to escalate the conflict by predominantly targeting innocent civilians and parties to the cessation of hostilities,” his spokesman John Kirby said.
Kirby said work was taking place to defuse tensions and the hope was that “tangible progress” would be made soon.
Such is the onslaught that the Observer understands humanitarian organisations are considering pulling out of Syria’s biggest city. A draft statement being circulated among NGOs warns of a “complete absence of the fundamentals of safe humanitarian intervention, and the absence of a clear mechanism to monitor and document violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law”.
Rescuers search for five children trapped under rubble.
 Rescuers search for five children trapped under rubble. Photograph: Khaled-Al-Essa
It further claims that there is “growing, recurrent targeting of humanitarian organisations, teams, and the vital centres that provide services to civilians in the province, by the Syrian regime and its allies”.
It goes on: “The most recent assaults included the shelling of Syrian civil defence centres, al-Quds children’s hospital, NGOs’ ambulance systems, and a number of administrative offices of the NGOs operating in the province.”
The UN high commissioner for human rights, Prince Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, on Saturday condemned the “monstrous disregard for civilian lives” by all parties to the conflict and called for urgent de-escalation.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a British-based monitoring group, puts the civilian death toll in government and rebel bombardments of districts in Aleppo since 22 April at nearly 250.
This figure includes around 140 people killed by government-aligned forces in airstrikes and shellings of rebel-held areas, 19 of them children, it said. Insurgent shelling of government-held areas was said to have killed 96 people, including 21 children, according to a report from Reuters.
Al Hussein also made reference to widespread rumours that new Russian artillery sites were being established on the outskirts of Aleppo. “The violence is soaring back to the levels we saw prior to the cessation of hostilities,” he said. “There are deeply disturbing reports of military build-ups indicating preparations for a lethal escalation.”
A street in an opposition-controlled part of Aleppo after regime helicopters targeted a medical centre on Friday.
 A street in an opposition-controlled part of Aleppo after regime helicopters targeted a medical centre on Friday. Photograph: Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
In his interview with the Observer, Haji Hasan confirmed that Aleppo was under partial siege, and that the last remaining road had been under almost constant attack since the two-month ceasefire between opposition and regime forces was broken by Assad. He said that he had heard about the Russian build-up on the periphery of the city but that he could not confirm this presence.
“In 2013 there were two million people in and around the city,” he said. “There are 400,000 right now. Some people just fled, but these 400,000 won’t leave – even though they know that at any time they could be bombed or killed. It is semi-siege right now. The only road connecting Aleppo is always targeted by airstrikes, the Castello road. This road is targeted by airstrikes and snipers, too. It is a dangerous road, but we have to use it, there is no other. If that goes, we will be besieged. It will be a disaster.”
A girl who survived a barrel bomb attack in the Bustan al Qasr neighbourhood, Aleppo.
 A girl who survived a barrel bomb attack in the Bustan al Qasr neighbourhood, Aleppo. Photograph: Khaled-Al-Essa
Late last week, in another illustration of just how dangerously fraught the politics of the city are becoming, Haji Hasan was seized by Kurdish secret police at his home at 9am on Thursday after having made the 10-hour trip back through the badlands of northern Syria.
He was subsequently detained in the police station before being taken to the Kurdish city of Afrin, in north-west Syria. His whereabouts on Saturday were unknown.
Sources close to Haji Hasan, who has sought to build a consensual council for the crisis-stricken city, said it was unclear why the Kurdish forces would interfere in the civilian government. The vice-president of Aleppo’s city council, Zacharia Amino, condemned Haji Hasan’s detention as a violation of human rights. The father of eight, who had been keeping services running in the city, had been taken from the citizens when they needed him most, said friends. A statement on Saturday said: “We firmly condemn this violation and we demand the democratic council to release immediately the president of the local council of the city of Aleppo and to explain this precedent and to offer official excuses.”
A temporary “regime of calm” announced by the Syrian army late on Friday appeared to have taken hold in two other areas blighted by recent fighting: in the north-western coastal province of Latakia and on the outskirts of the capital,Damascus. The Syrian government said the “regime of calm” – from which a military source said Aleppo was excluded – was an attempt to salvage a widerceasefire deal reached in February.
Aleppo has been divided for years between rebel and government zones. Full control would be the most important prize for Assad. He claims the fighters in the city are al-Qaida extremists.
The UN has called on Moscow and Washington to help restore a comprehensive ceasefire to prevent a collapse of talks aimed at ending a conflict in which more than 250,000 people have been killed and millions displaced. In Aleppo they will not be holding their breath.
Smoke rises after airstrikes on the rebel-held al-Sakhour neighborhood of Aleppo, Syria, on Friday.
 Smoke rises after airstrikes on the rebel-held al-Sakhour neighborhood of Aleppo, Syria, on Friday. Photograph: A