A still from the video shows the moment the Russian helicopter explodes. (Supplied)
The video shows the rebels setting up a US-made TOW anti-tank missile system before firing it at the Russian helicopter, which is sitting at rest some distance away.
The wire-guided missile can be seen tracking towards its target before hitting the helicopter and exploding, sparking chants of "Allah Akbar" from those near the camera.
Russia has since confirmed one marine was killed in the rescue mission.
"A search and rescue operation to evacuate the Russian pilots from the crash site was launched with the help of two Mi-8 helicopters," military spokesman General Sergei Rudskoi said in televised comments.
November 25, 2015: Recently emerged footage alleges to show the two Russian marines who ejected their fighter jet after it was hit with a missile near the Turkish-Syrian border getting shot at by ground forces.
"During the operation, one of the helicopters was damaged by gunfire and had to land. A soldier was killed."
The video comes as another circulates allegedly showing the one of the dead pilots from the Russian SU-24 jet surrounded by Syrian rebels.